Differential Diagnosis. Again, this can be written mentally by the doctor, but it should be done. Instead, the diagnosis is based on your medical history and your symptoms. Check out this awesome Example Of Differential Diagnosis Case Studies for writing techniques and actionable ideas. To continue the example used above, let's say that the history and physical examination was indicative of cancer as well, with a likelihood ratio of 3, giving an Odds(PostH&E) of 0.057, corresponding to a P(PostH&E) of 5.4%. If a patient presents with a complaint of a sore throat, a number of differential diagnoses must be considered before determining a final diagnosis. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and He has a history or pneumonia, Hypertension, High Cholesterol. 18 examples: It is important to consider human orf in the differential diagnosis of hand… The statistical basis for differential diagnosis is Bayes' theorem. The probability of primary hyperparathyroidism is now termed Pre-BTPH because it corresponds to before the blood test (Latin preposition prae means before). Describe the risks/benefits of these 3 processes. A physician (who becomes the "diagnostician" in this example), who does not currently see the patient, gets to know about his finding. For an individual (who becomes the "patient" in this example), a blood test of, for example, serum calcium shows a result above the standard reference range, which, by most definitions, classifies as hypercalcemia, which becomes the "presentation" in this case. For example, if a patient presents with a runny nose, doctors might consider causes like hay fever and colds in the differential diagnosis in an attempt to arrive at the right diagnosis. It often involves several tests. Multiplying with likelihood ratios necessitates conversion of likelihoods from probabilities to odds in favor (hereafter simply termed "odds") by: However, only the candidate conditions with known likelihood ratio need this conversion. Apply the Pertinent Positive and Negative Findings to the Framework . This example continues for the same patient as in the example for the epidemiology-based method. The resultant probability is, however, much smaller than the 1 in 6 million. exciting challenge of being a wiseGEEK researcher and writer. By epidemiology as described in previous section. Therefore, the probability of parathyroid carcinoma may still be close to 100% after histopathologic examination despite the low probability of occurring in the first place. Methods similar to those of differential diagnostic processes in medicine are also used by biological taxonomists to identify and classify organisms, living and extinct. It is more systematic than the old-fashioned method of diagnosis by gestalt (impression). If there is an indication for an additional test, and it returns with a result, then the procedure is repeated using the likelihood ratio of the additional test. 'Differential diagnosis' is also used more loosely, to refer simply to a list of the most common causes of a given symptom, to a list of disorders similar to a given disorder, or to such lists when they are annotated with advice on how to narrow the list down (French's Index of Differential Diagnosis is an example). Part 1 of a 3 part video series on how to create a differential diagnosis from a patient's presentation. Influenza. For example, an abdominal pain differential diagnosis should also consider if there is any bleeding associated with the pain which could mean that the patient may have an ulcer or may have something as serious as cancer. Musculoskeletal: These conditions relate to … In this case, however, tissue has already been resected, wherein a histopathologic examination can be performed that includes the possibility of parathyroid carcinoma in the examination (which may entail appropriate sample staining). By practical reasons, the physician considers that there is enough test indication to have a look at the patient's medical records. @Cupcake15 - I think that that is the hardest part of medicine because you have to do a lot of research and even though you have a lot of information, you still may not know what the patient has which has to be really disheartening. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS / RULE-OUT- A differential diagnosis has sometimes been called “rule out” diagnoses. Let's say that the patient in this example is revealed to have at least some of the symptoms and signs of depression, bone pain, joint pain or constipation of more severity than what would be expected by the hypercalcemia itself, supporting the suspicion of primary hyperparathyroidism, and let's say that the likelihood ratios for the tests, when multiplied together, roughly results in a product of 6 for primary hyperparathyroidism.  Since the subjective probability of the presence of a condition is never exactly 100% or 0%, the differential diagnostic procedure may aim at specifying these various probabilities to form indications for further action. In this version of the diagnosis, all diseases are arranged in a special order, depending on which pathology at the time of observation is the main one. More generally, a differential diagnostic procedure is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible. 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